- 乳酸发酵机理和乳酸菌有关特性方面的研究结果，为克服葡萄酒苹果酸 - 乳酸发酵的困难和控制这一发酵的研究，开辟了更为广阔的领域。 In recent years, research results on malic acid - lactic acid fermentation mechanism and related characteristics of lactic acid bacteria have opened up a wider field in order to overcome the difficulties of malic acid - lactic acid fermentation in wine and control the fermentation. However, most controls are still in the laboratory phase. - 乳酸发酵简单、有效的方法。 At present, the selection of industrialized active lactic acid bacteria suitable for various wine environments has become a simple and effective method for winemakers to control malic acid - lactic acid fermentation.
- 乳酸发酵，就需要做到： If malic - lactic acid fermentation of wine is required, then:
对原料的 SO 2 处理不能高于 60mg/L; (1) The SO 2 treatment of raw materials cannot be higher than 60mg / L;
用优选酵母进行发酵，防止酒精发酵中产生 SO 2 ； (2) fermenting with preferred yeast to prevent the production of SO 2 during alcohol fermentation ;
酒精发酵必须完全（含糖量小于 2g/L ）； (3) Alcohol fermentation must be complete (sugar content is less than 2g / L );
当酒精发酵结束时，不能对葡萄酒进行 SO 2 处理； (4) When the alcohol fermentation is over, the SO 2 treatment cannot be performed on the wine ;
将葡萄酒的 pH 调整至 3.2 ； (5) adjust the pH of the wine to 3.2 ;
接种乳酸菌（大于 10 6 cfu/mL ）； (6) Inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (greater than 10 6 cfu / mL );
在 18~20 ℃ 的条件下，添满、密封发酵； (7) Fill and seal fermentation at 18-20 ° C ;
利用层析法分析观察有机酸特别是苹果酸的变化，或用酶分析法测定 D- 乳酸的变化，并根据分析结果对苹果酸 - 乳酸发酵进行控制； (8) Observe the changes of organic acids, especially malic acid, by chromatographic analysis, or measure the changes of D- lactic acid by enzymatic analysis , and control the malic acid - lactic acid fermentation based on the analysis results ;
在苹果酸 - 乳酸发酵结束时，立即分离转罐，同时进行 SO 2 （ 50~80mg/L ）处理。 (9) At the end of the malic acid - lactic acid fermentation, immediately separate the transfer tank and perform SO 2 ( 50 ~ 80mg / L ) treatment at the same time .
- 乳酸发酵的葡萄酒，可用“串罐”的方式使需要的葡萄酒进行该发酵。 If there is already a wine undergoing malo - lactic fermentation, the fermentation of the desired wine can be performed in a "kettle tank" manner. If you want to add lactic acid bacteria before fermentation, you should choose the Lactobacillus plantarum strain; and if you add lactic acid bacteria after the alcohol fermentation is finished, you should choose the Saccharomyces spp. When using commercial active dry lactic acid bacteria, it should be operated in accordance with the instructions.
- 乳酸发酵的葡萄酒，应采取相应措施，防止微生物的活动。 For wines that do not require malic - lactic fermentation, measures should be taken to prevent microbial activity.